Penrose (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rog…) made the comment that we should not call “Dark Energy” energy because it is not conserved. It is pouring into our universe from somewhere else at a rate that is causing the universe to accelerate its expansion. That makes the universe a far from equilibrium system. Negative Entropy can occur in such a system ala Prigogine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ily…). So we get things like Galaxies as ordered, but we don’t know why they are spirals, and thus there must be a lot of “Dark Matter” our there. We kind of assume that dark matter really is matter, but there is so much of it that it makes you wonder if the same thing is true of dark matter that it should really not be called matter. For instance there are some models of the universe in which there needs to be a second universe which only shares gravity with our universe, in that case dark matter could be things in the other dual universe. The only one I know who has thought about the implications of this is Smolin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee…) who says that every black hole is another universe inside and thus the universe is fractal, and constantly creating sub-universes, and that more or less assumes that we are in a black hole of a super-universe (which I call a pluriverse), Non-conserved Energy and Mass, i.e. “dark” energy and mass more or less transforms our notion of physics because if they are in other universes and if as Deutsch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dav…) says quantum interference is the presence of other universes within our own universe making it the embodiment of the multiple worlds theory, then we are living in a very strange multiverse indeed.
There are some physics articles starting to appear on what the multiverse must be like (See Weinberg in Universe or Multiverse edited by Carr http://www.cambridge.org/gb/know…). But what is not understood well, is that the multiverse should not be considered to be just the universe schema at a higher level of abstraction, i.e. a universe of universes (like a system of systems), but rather the pluriverse must be a meta-system, or meta-universe in the sense that I have outlined in General Schemas Theory, in other words it must be an “operating system” (universal Turing machine) for the universes (Turing machines) it contains. David Deutsch is planning to take advantage of the fact that there can be multiple Turing machines in different dimensions that are super-positioned in our universe at the quantum level to do computation across multiple universes simultaneously. Thus the multiverse as meta-verse (like a meta-system) is channeling resources to our universe, i.e. Dark Energy and perhaps Dark Matter. It has a completely different organization from our universe, by definition if it is a different schema. So that is the value of General Schemas Theory. It tells us something about the necessary relation between the system and the meta-system, but also something about the necessary relation between the universe and the pluriverse. Although these are outside our experience, per se (because we are trapped by the speed of light and are only in one universe) we can by analogy with other schemas say something about the relation between the two schemas because they are like the other schemas in the “S1” hypothesis for General Schemas Theory. One thing about General Schemas Theory is that each schema is composed by the conjunction of the schemas adjacent to it, so for instance the system as gestalt is a conjunction of a form (figure) and meta-system (ground). Likewise the Plurivese is composed of the conjunction of kosmos and facet. Facet is the other end of the heirarchy of the schemas as below monads. Facets are like quarks that never appear in isolation. So General Schemas theory hypothesis S1 points to the fact that Deutsch might be right, because what is added to the universe to get the pluriverse is the superposition and entanglement of facets.
On the other hand the Kosmos is a conjunction between the world and the pluriverse. The world is the ultimate horizon of our experience. The Kosmos goes beyond our experience because we can only see up close what is local. However, because of light we can see to the furthest end of the universe and very far back in time. The Kosmos is what you get when you apply conservation laws. But the hint that the Kosmos is not all there is the fact that the Universe is accelerating in its expansion, and thus a lot of Dark Energy is flowing in from somewhere. Thinking of the whole universe as a far from equilibrium system is a very new concept in Physics, whose ramifications
have not all been explored yet. However, it gives an opening for Special Systems theory to apply at the macro level. One way that Special Systems could apply at the Macro Level is if there is heterochrony, i.e. multiple orthogonal dimensions of time like we see in F theory.
General Schemas Theory hypothesis S1 also tells us that there are two dimensions per schema and two schemas per dimension. That means that the pluriverse is eight and nine dimensions, and the kosmos is seven and eight dimensional. The Kosmos therefore is composed of four dimensions of space and four dimensions of time. Every possible symmetry breaking of this matrix of spacetimes can be actualized. In our universe it so happens that the 3s+1t symmetry breaking exists. The ninth dimension is the meta-verse (on the analogy with the meta-system) that that contains this matrix which is the pluriverse schema. Beyond that we have string theory that has five versions in the tenth dimension and were unified in the eleventh dimension by Witten (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edw…). And beyond that is F theory where orthogonal timelines appear which were first conceived by Dunne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joh…) in the 1920s based on his generalization from the work of Hinton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cha…).
Thus General Schemas Theory can help us to understand the nature of the pluriverse in relation to the universe, based on the analogy with the other schemas within the hierarchy of scopes of schemas of different kinds. So although we perhaps do not know about the pluriverse from our ability to see what is happening outside our universe (the place where the dark matter comes from), we can at least understand better our own a priori projections that produce the template of understanding that we call the univserse (kosmos) and pluriverse. Kant’s a priori projection of the singulars space and time, that we now know are one singular is in fact striated, i.e. it is not homogeneous but is a set of schemas of different scopes with different dimensions related to each one. This is like the anthropic position that says that there would be no universe if we were not here to observe it, except it goes further and specified that the structure of the pluriverse actually comes from us, not from external reality. Therefore we should not consider it something beyond our reach, but something that comes from within us in the ecstasy by which we project our world, and all the other schemas that General Schemas Theory hypothesis “S1” necessitate as the basis of our experience (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant…).
For more on General Schemas Theory see http://holonomic.net